The stages of winemaking

Stages of winemaking

Winemaking and its phases. The processes that lead to obtaining the wine from the harvested grapes.

The winemaking process of the grapes

La winemaking is the process that concerns the transformation of must in wine. Once the grape was sellmiata and taken to the cellar, the actual winemaking process begins. So the winemaking includes all processing steps subsequent to harvest until obtaining the wine ready to be placed on the market. Each of these phases is characterized by different ones operational choices that allow to characterize the final product within the limits imposed by the typology of the desired wine and the prescriptions of the production disciplinary for the type itself.

The stages of winemaking

The stages of winemaking

The process of winemaking of grapes can be divided into phases successive, which follow one another in order. Each of these stages involves choices by the winemaker or oenologist, which vary according to the raw material (the grapes harvested) and the product to be obtained. Let's see them in detail.

The harvest

La harvest (harvest of the fruit) represents the first phase of the process that leads to obtaining wine from grapes. The degree of maturity desired for the grape varies according to the vine and the product you want to get. The longer the grapes remain on the plant, the greater the sugar and pigmenting substances content in the musts and the lower their content. acidity. For White wines to be consumed young and fresh, especially if sparkling wines, we will opt for a rather early harvest, while for the wines intended foraging, the stay on the plant will be prolonged up to the phenolic maturation of grapes. There surmaturazione is sought for the production of dessert wines and those defined precisely by late harvest.

Destemming and crushing

- berries must be separated from rachide o raspo mendantly the destemming. In fact i raspi they contain high quantities of tannins, lignin, resins and pectins which, if transferred to the wine, would irremediably compromise its organoleptic profile. There pressing and the pressing of the grapes to separate the liquid part from the solid ones (pomace e grapeseed) which, after any maceration together with the juices, are removed from the must.

Alcoholic fermentation

La fermentation is the vinification proper, with which the sugar (fructose and glucose) present in musts are transformed into alcohol thanks to the action of yeast.

Refinement and maturation of the wine

Before being bottled, once the fermentation, the wine is subjected to decanting e filtration, which is followed by a so-called settling period aging. It can be conducted in inert containers (steel, concrete, fiberglass) for a period ranging from a few weeks to a few months. If it is conducted in wooden containers large (barrels) or small (barrels e tonneaux) in which it can remain for a period ranging from several months to several years, we speak of maturity o aging Of the wine.


After the maturity, the wine is again racked and filtered and finally bottled (bottled). At this point the wine must stabilize again, therefore it is aged in the bottle usually for one-three months before being put on the market.

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